6 Easy Home Remedies to Stop Sneezing

Whether it’s from seasonal allergies or just a bug up your nose, sneezing is a natural mechanism of the body that basically clears the nasal cavity.1 Or, as University of Pennsylvania researchers say, sneezing “reboots” the nasal cavity. In effect, sneezing is a defense mechanism of the body.

The most common reason for sneezing is a cold, allergic rhinitis or the flu; the least common is a nose injury. For some people, one sneeze does the job, but for others, the irritation is intense enough to cause more successive sneezes.2

No matter how disruptive it may be, holding in a sneeze is far more dangerous to your health because sneezing has a lot of power (the sudden, powerful expulsion of air can propel mucus droplets at rates up to 100 miles per hour). Holding in a sneeze means you end up turning this force inward and can end up rupturing the eardrums or damaging your sinuses.3

Don’t hold your sneeze in, but do cover your mouth with a handkerchief or an elbow to avoid the spread of infection.

That said, there are ways to help reduce sneezing from occurring in the first place so you can get on with your day. Here are some home remedies to get your sneezing in control!

1. Treat Your Sneezes With Saline

Stop Sneezing | Princeton NutrientsMany of us who suffer from continuous sneezing or excessive sneezing start to feel irritation in the sinus or nasal cavity before an episode. This is the time to use a nasal saline flush or irrigation, which has proven beneficial to those with seasonal allergies.4 Care should be taken to make sure that the saline solution is isotonic (the same saline levels as the body) and the water used should be boiled and distilled so you don’t end up with an infection.

2. Avoid Trans Fats like the Plague

Studies have linked trans fats to an increase in inflammation of the body’s tissues as well as declining immune function. This means that if you eat a diet high in trans-fat acids, you not only increase the risk of contracting allergies or infection but also increase the possibility of the tissues becoming inflamed.5 The best bet? Cut down on trans fats (like cookies, cakes, potato chips, margarine, and many pre-packaged foods) as much as you can.

3. Get Some Turmeric in Your Diet

Stop Sneezing | Princeton NutrientsTurmeric, the yellow spice you often see in Indian cuisine, is the dried and powdered underground stems of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa). An antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent, turmeric can significantly help seasonal allergy-related sneezing, according to research.6

4. Try Some Butterbur

Butterbur is a leafy plant that grows in the marshy regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. It’s been known for its medicinal value since the Middle Ages, where it was first used to treat plague and fevers. Some initial studies have also shown promise of butterbur being an effective remedy in alleviating the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, though more studies are needed to effectively prove its effect.7

5. Have a Hot Cuppa

There’s a reason why grandma’s hot tea always made you feel better! Researchers at Cardiff University suggest that having a hot steaming drink, whether it’s coffee or herbal tea, can alleviate symptoms of colds and flu, including halting those sneezes that wring you out. The hot vapors of the drink work as steam inhalation, easing inflamed and irritated sinus cavities, while the hot sips also soothe the throat, giving you a welcome respite from all the congestion and sneezing.8

6. Get Some Steam In

Stop Sneezing | Princeton NutrientsInhaling warm, humidified air can also alleviate symptoms of a cold, flu, allergy or even rhinitis. Plain steam or steam medicated with a decongestant (like Vicks or eucalyptus oil) can soothe the inflamed nasal sinuses and even increase nasal resistance over time, though more studies are needed to pinpoint its effectiveness.9

Sneezing is just as annoying as it is refreshing, but it also makes you extremely contagious (or if you aren’t ill, it makes people think you are!). Try these home remedies to give your nose a break and get your breathing back to normal. Gesundheit!

 

Learn More:
How To Build A Mason Jar Salad (And What To Put In It!)
4 Weird Ways You Can Lower Blood Pressure
How Much Protein In An Egg? (and why eggs are healthy for you)


Sources
1.https://www.pennmedicine.org/news/news-blog/2012/may/biology-of-a-sneeze-rebooting
2.http://www.everydayhealth.com/allergy-pictures/why-we-sneeze-and-other-fun-facts-about-sneezing.aspx#03
3.https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2014/04/dont-stifle-that-sneeze-you-could-get-hurt
4.http://care.american-rhinologic.org/irrigation
5.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8050192
6.http://ccrhindia.org/pdf/ijrh/5(1)/4.pdf
7.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18219828
8.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19145994
9.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796659

7 Surprising Health Benefits of Drinking Pomegranate Juice

When you think of fruit juice, orange and grapefruit juice come to mind first, right? You might also be a fan of apple juice and grape juice.

Pomegranate juice probably doesn’t even make the list. But there are many reasons why you should consider making this beverage a part of your daily dietary regimen. This is especially the case if you have issues with your heart health or high blood pressure.

What is Pomegranate Juice?

Well, the pomegranate is an incredible fruit that produces the sweet, reddish liquid known as pomegranate juice. This fruit contains powerful antioxidants as well as anti-inflammatory properties.

Pomegranates are typically cultivated in India, Iran, Egypt, Spain, Turkey and several other countries. The pomegranate tree can grow as high as 30 feet and is known for its bright orange, pink and red flowers.1

But best of all, the health benefits of pomegranate juice appear to be vast.

Here are just seven of them.

1. Blood Pressure

If you have high blood pressure (also known as hypertension), you probably follow a very strict diet. Well, scientific evidence suggests you should consider making pomegranate juice a part of your daily routine.

Turns out, researchers analyzed several studies to see how pomegranate juice might affect blood pressure. They concluded that this drink appears to have a very positive effect on people who have been diagnosed with this problem.2

2. Heart Disease

Benefits of Pomegranate Juice| Princeton NutrientsAccording to a study of patients suffering from heart disease, pomegranate juice not only reduces blood pressure but also the buildup of dangerous plaque in the arteries.

One group of participants who drank the juice saw a reduction of 30 percent in plaque buildup and a reduction of 12 percent in blood pressure. The participants who didn’t drink pomegranate juice had an increase in plaque buildup of 9 percent.3

3. Reducing Joint Discomfort

The anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate juice could help people suffering from joint pain. One study involved nearly 40 people with joint problems. One group drank pomegranate juice for a month and a half. The other group drank a placebo.

According to the results, the people who consumed pomegranate juice had less joint stiffness and showed improved physical functioning compared with the placebo group.4

4. Antioxidant Power

Pomegranates are filled with antioxidants. These are important because they protect the body from the effects of oxidation. One of these is the formation of free radicals, which are dangerous molecules that can cause severe tissue damage.

According to one study, pomegranate juice has more antioxidants than green tea or even red wine, a drink known for its antioxidant properties.5

5. Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Studies show that the benefits of pomegranate juice include substantial anti-inflammatory properties. In one study, researchers found that consuming as little as 250 milliliters of the beverage daily for three months lowered inflammation in diabetes patients.6

6. Erectile Dysfunction

You might have seen headlines stating that pomegranate juice could help those suffering from erectile dysfunction, or ED. That’s because of a study where men who drank pomegranate juice reported improved erectile function.7

However, this study wasn’t a “blind study.” So, it’s likely that the men knew they were drinking pomegranate juice and, as a result, expected the improvement.

There may potentially be a link between pomegranate juice and ED, but more studies are still needed.8

7. Skin Health

Benefits of Pomegranate Juice| Princeton NutrientsResearch indicates that the benefits of pomegranate juice continue into  helping protect the body against inflammatory responses that can lead to skin problems, such as acne and psoriasis. According to one study, pomegranate juice may inhibit the ability of mast cells to cause inflammation, which can lead to skin issues.9

The Bottom Line

As you can see, the humble pomegranate appears to possess qualities that can help address many types of health problems. It also contains many essential nutrients, such as vitamin E, vitamin B6, vitamin C, calcium, manganese and potassium.10

As a matter of fact, one study listed pomegranate juice as the healthiest of all fruit juices.11

So pay close attention the next time you’re in the juice aisle and consider giving pomegranate juice a try. The odds are it will be one of the best decisions you’ll make.

Just to stay on the safe side, though, talk to your doctor first before making this drink a part of your dietary routine.

Learn more about healthy beverages:
3 Detox Drink Recipes (that actually taste delicious!)
26 Beauty & Health Benefits of Drinking Hot Water
Is Drinking Coffee the Secret to Longevity?


Sources
1.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007340/
2.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27888156
3.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15158307
4.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804926
5.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11052704
6.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573120
7.https://www.nature.com/articles/3901570
8.https://www.nhs.uk/news/food-and-diet/evidence-from-pomegranate-study-not-firm
9.https://journal-inflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-9255-6-1
10.https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2359
11.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18220345

5 Remarkable Natural Remedies for Constipation

Having to deal with constipation can be maddening. Especially when you simply can’t achieve a bowel movement no matter how hard you try.

Thankfully, there are many products on the market designed to treat your constipation. But, more and more people are starting to prefer more natural remedies.

If you’re one of those people, here are a few options.

1. Increase Your Fiber Intake

If you don’t get enough fiber in your diet, you’re not alone. In fact, as many as 90 percent of people in the U.S. fail to consume enough of this vital substance on a daily basis.1 Fiber plays a critical role in helping you achieve regular bowel movements.2

Great natural sources of fiber include –

  • Oranges
  • Berries
  • Apples (with the skin)
  • Green, leafy vegetables
  • Peanuts
  • Almonds
  • Legumes3

Now, you want to get into the routine of eating these foods on a regular basis – not only with meals but at snack time too. Whole-grain foods also have a lot of fiber as well as other important nutrients.4

Just make sure you talk to your doctor before you start any new dietary regimen.

2. Change Your Position

Treat Your Constipation | Princeton NutrientsThis is a unique method that you may just find useful to treat your constipation. It can be somewhat uncomfortable, but it could be just what you need.

To try it, just place a small step stool or a footrest next to the commode. Sit down as you normally would, but put your feet on the footrest or stool. Elevating your feet should help place you at the best angle possible for having a bowel movement.5

3. Use Aloe Vera

Aloe vera contains anthraquinones, which are natural laxatives. They help increase the water content of the intestines and stimulate the secretion of mucus.6 This, in turn, stimulates a process known as peristalsis. Peristalsis is the contraction of muscles in the intestines that move stool through the bowels.7

Nearly 30 adults suffering from constipation participated in one study. Some of them used aloe vera while others used a placebo. The aloe vera group reported constipation relief, while the other group reported no improvement.8

Although most people associate aloe vera as a topical ointment for burns, drinking aloe vera juice can actually help treat your constipation.

Drink two to three ounces of aloe vera juice on an empty stomach for best results. Continue daily until you experience relief.

4. Try Prune Juice

Prune juice can be very effective for those suffering from constipation. In fact, studies indicate that prunes provide more relief than medications in many instances.9

5. Drink Up

natural ways to beat constipation | Princeton NutrientsDehydration is one of the leading contributors to chronic constipation.

If you have a hard time passing stool on a regular basis, you might not be getting enough water.10 Try adding some lemon juice to give your drinking water a little zip.

Why Constipation Happens in the First Place

Treat Your Constipation | Princeton NutrientsNow, constipation can either mean straining to pass extremely hard stools or being unable to have any sort of bowel movement whatsoever.

It can sometimes be a sign of a gastrointestinal issue, especially if you alternate between having constipation and then having diarrhea. Severe constipation occurs when someone has one or zero bowel movements in a week.11

There are a lot of contributing factors to this condition. For example, you might be at a higher risk if you take pain medications, antacids, diuretics, or blood pressure medicine. Travelling, pregnancy, and age can also play a role. People who don’t get enough exercise are also more susceptible to becoming constipated.12

When to See a Doctor

It’s not uncommon for someone to experience a bout of constipation from time to time. But if you tend to have this problem on a regular basis, you need to seriously consider getting medical help.

Get to a doctor as soon as possible if any of the following apply to you –

  • Your stool is black.
  • You have constipation along with unexpected weight loss.
  • You feel weak and tired.
  • You have constipation for more than three weeks.
  • Your stomach hurts when you have a bowel movement.
  • Your stool is significantly thinner than normal.
  • There is blood in your stool.13

In addition, you should never ignore the urge to have a bowel movement as it can substantially increase the chances that you’ll become constipated.

You need to give yourself enough time in the bathroom so you can relax when trying to pass a stool.14 Feeling rushed is the enemy of a healthy bowel movement.

The Last Word

Being unable to comfortably pass a stool can be incredibly frustrating. Thankfully, there are several safe, gentle remedies you can try at home to treat your constipation, and find relief. But if these don’t work or you have chronic constipation, you should seek medical help as soon as possible.

Learn More:
26 Beauty & Health Benefits of Drinking Hot Water
How To Build A Mason Jar Salad (And What To Put In It!)
3 Detox Drink Recipes (that actually taste delicious!)

Sources
1.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544045
2.https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/fiber/art-20043983
3.https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/appendix-13
4.https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/constipation/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354259
5.http://www.evidentlycochrane.net/feet-up-constipation
6.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92765
7.https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002282.htm
8.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92765
9.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12913/abstract;jsessionid=ADDB226A2F8928868E3E8347DE5F3EA3.f04t02
10.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14681719
11.https://www.medicinenet.com/constipation/article.htm
12.https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/constipation/symptoms-causes
13.http://www.gastro.org/info_for_patients/constipation-103-when-to-call-your-doctor
14.https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/constipation/prevention

A Nourishing DIY Facial Scrub For Radiant Winter Skin

With spring just around the corner, it’s time to bid farewell to icicles, skiing, and long evenings sipping hot cocoa next to the fire. It’s also time to bid farewell to biting winds, subzero temperatures, and the 24/7 blast of oh-so-dry central heating – not to mention all the skin woes that come right along with these “winter wonders.”

They might be wonderful to see and enjoy (if you’re a fan of cold temps), but they’re anything but wonderful for your skin.

Months of winter weather can leave you with skin that’s dry, rough, and chapped – all of which can seriously dull your glow.

And it’s not just your pretty face that’s at stake here. Winter weather can even be bad for the health of your skin. That’s right – skin that’s dry is more prone to redness, itchiness, and irritation. And if that dry skin begins to crack? It can lead to the risk of bacteria getting into the skin, causing further irritation.1

Facial Scrub | Princeton NutrientsAll of this can make you long for gentle breezes, soft rain, and the return of dewy, springtime skin. Well … we’re almost there.

But there are things you can do to renew your skin now. How about a rejuvenating homemade facial scrub?

A skin-pampering facial scrub will rid you of dry winter skin, restoring skin’s moisture, so you can gear up for spring. You’ll be left with a complexion that’s soft, supple, radiant, and most importantly – protected – to get you through the waning days of winter.

Moisturizing Facial Scrub For Winter Skin

This recipe is a miracle worker for skin that’s been battered by winter weather. It uses nourishing ingredients to exfoliate, moisturize, and soothe. So, what makes this facial scrub so great?

Coconut Oil:

Facial Scrub | Princeton NutrientsThe oil from the humble coconut has been hailed in recent years as a do-it-all remedy. Not only can you cook with it, you can also use it to condition your hair, shave your legs, and soften your cuticles. And yes – those benefits extend to the skin as well. Studies have found that coconut oil is an effective and safe way to hydrate mild to moderately dry skin.2

Olive Oil:

The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in olive oil, is known to have a myriad of health benefits, including good heart health.3 Well, it turns out olive oil is good for your skin, too. Topical application of olive oil may help reduce redness, irritation, and itchiness.4

Honey:

Since skin is particularly dry in the winter, it’s important to take your hydration game to the next level. That’s where honey comes in. Sure, putting honey on your face may sound sticky, but it’s worth it. Not only will honey deeply moisturize thirsty skin, it also promotes youthfulness, helps slow wrinkle formation, balances skin pH, and it helps prevent pathogens from invading your skin.5 Talk about some sweet benefits!

Oats:

Oats are the all-star of this recipe, because they do so much. Their first task is to gently exfoliate the skin, scrubbing away layers of dry, dead skin cells that may have built up over the winter months.

The second purpose of the oats is to protect and nourish the skin. You see, oats contain something called “polysaccharides” – a type of carbohydrate. And when you combine polysaccharides with liquid – coconut oil and honey, for example – they can work to protect your skin and help reduce moisture loss.6

Oats also contain phenols, which are naturally-occurring, organic compounds. These phenols work to soothe irritated skin.7 So, if your skin is majorly chapped or irritated by winter winds, phenols might just be your best friend.

Essential Oils:

The fun part of this homemade facial scrub? Choosing essential oils! Here are essential oils you can try, based on the benefits you want:Facial Scrub | Princeton Nutrients

  • Energy: lemon, grapefruit, peppermint, basil
  • Stress relief: lavender, vetiver, cedarwood, frankincense
  • Positive outlook: geranium, sandalwood, bergamot
  • Glowing skin: geranium, patchouli, ylang-ylang
  • Antioxidant Boost: oregano, rosemary, sage

Got all the ingredients? Let’s get to mixing!

DIY FACIAL SCRUB RECIPE

Ingredients:

¼ cup uncooked oats
⅛ cup honey
1 tablespoon coconut oil
1 tablespoon olive oil
2 to 4 drops essential oil

Instructions:
  • Pour the oats into a food processor, and pulse until they’re broken down. You don’t want the oats to become too fine a powder – they’ll lose their exfoliating power.
  • Pour your oats into a bowl, and combine with honey, coconut oil, olive oil, and essential oils. Mix until well blended.
  • After washing your face, apply the mixture, and gently massage for 60 seconds.
  • Now, to get the full skin-protecting benefits of the oats, leave on for 5 to 10 minutes. This will ensure your skin gets a good chance to soak in all those good nutrients.
  • Rinse with lukewarm water, and pat your face dry.

A DIY Facial Scrub Puts A Spring In Your Step

It’s only a matter of time before winter weather transforms into something a little more … tolerable. But when it comes to refreshing your skin? There’s no time like the present. For a complexion that’s moisturized, soothed, glowing, and protected – give this facial scrub a try. So long, winter skin!

For more health tips, keep reading here:
4 Tips For Improving Your Sleep Quality (Every Night)
Massage: Luxury or Therapy?
10 Ways to Increase Your Good Cholesterol (HDL)


Sources
1.https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dry-skin/symptoms-causes/syc-20353885
2.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15724344
3.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4980102/
4.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18429773
5.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24305429
6.https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-03751-6_64-1
7.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17373175

Bruised Kidney? Try These Simple DIY Remedies for Relief

Think you might have bruised a kidney? This type of injury usually happens as a result of blunt trauma – maybe you fell or were playing a sport with your grandkids and got whacked by the ball?

Any injury to a major organ is potentially serious, and you should absolutely go to your doctor if you suspect your kidney may be bruised.

That being said, there are some remedies for a bruised kidney which may prove helpful.

Your kidneys are a pair of small organs located in the back of your abdomen.1 One of their main functions is to filter liquid waste from your body, but they are also responsible for keeping blood pressure regular, helping reabsorb nutrients, and regulating fluid levels.2

Kidneys are the organs most susceptible to injury in the urinary tract.3 Though their location often protects them, kidneys can become bruised due to trauma from car accidents, falls, or contact sports. Professional football players, for example, often suffer from bruised kidneys.

Symptoms of a Bruised Kidney

A bruised kidney is also called a renal contusion. One of the main symptoms is blood in the urine. This is called hematuria. It can be enough blood to be seen by the naked eye, or the amount of blood may be seen only by a microscope.4 Other symptoms of a bruised kidney include abdominal pain and bruising on the back of the abdomen.5

Kidney injuries can cause other, more severe symptoms. If, in addition to blood in the urine, you have nausea, vomiting, fever or increased heart rate, you should go to the emergency room immediately.

should i go to doctor for bruised kidney

Should You See a Doctor?

Yes. If you suspect you have a kidney injury, you should see your doctor as soon as possible. Your doctor can determine the severity of your injury and set a course of treatment.

Most injuries to the kidneys are “low grade,” or minor.6 It’s important to know what kind of injury you’ve sustained, since some kidney trauma can be life-threatening. A bruised kidney is not serious, but bruised kidney symptoms can be similar to those of a laceration, or tear, in the kidney.7 A lacerated kidney can be serious if left untreated. Complications, such as infection, high blood pressure, and even kidney failure, can occur.8

Additionally, patients who have fallen or been involved in automobile accidents may have injuries to other parts of the body, such as the rib cage. It’s important to see a physician right away to have your injuries assessed and treated.

Tests Your Doctor May Use

Urinalysis, or a test of your urine, is one assessment your doctor may use. Urinalysis can help doctors see if you have microscopic amounts of blood in your urine.9 This gives them one part of the picture of your kidney injury.

Depending on the severity of your symptoms, your doctor may also order a computerized tomography (CT) scan to check the extent of your injury. This is the most common test done to determine injuries to the kidneys. During a CT scan, the patient lies on a table while images are taken. The procedure is similar to an X-ray, but more detailed.10 A CT scan takes about half an hour to complete.

Your doctor may also order an angiogram, which is a kind of x-ray taken after a special dye is injected into your blood.11 Ultrasounds are also sometimes used to determine kidney injuries.12

How to Remedy Bruised Kidney At Home

If you have a mild kidney contusion, you should be healed in about a week. In the meantime, here are some ways to help your kidneys heal at home.

Get Plenty of Rest

remedy bruised kidney at homeYou may need to stay on bed rest until there is no longer blood in your urine. This can take one to two weeks.13 Bed rest means that you are lying down most of the time. Avoid strenuous activities, such as exercise and lifting heavy objects. Your doctor may have you stay overnight in the hospital so your vital signs can be observed.

Regulate Fluid Intake

Doctors advise kidney contusion patients to drink enough fluids, but not so much as to overtax your kidneys. Aim to drink around eight to 10 glasses of water each day.14 Your kidneys need water to function correctly, especially while they heal.

Pain Relievers

Kidney bruises can be painful. Take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. If you find your pain can’t be controlled by these medications, talk to your doctor about prescription pain relief.

Diet Changes

Your doctor may ask you to make changes to your diet in order to allow your kidneys to heal. Eating a diet with too much sodium can cause your healing kidneys to work too hard.15 Limit the amount of sodium in your diet by eating less processed foods and adding less table salt to your food.

Surgery

In most cases, a bruised kidney will heal on its own. However, in some cases of more severe kidney injury, surgery may be needed.

The Takeaway

A bruised kidney can be uncomfortable, but it is usually not life-threatening. Follow your doctor’s advice carefully, as well as these remedies for a bruised kidney, and your body will heal in just a few weeks. Your doctor will conduct a follow-up examination, after which time your will likely be able to resume normal activities.

Learn More:
NEWS: Can Ibuprofen (NSAIDs) Increase Risk Of Heart Attack?


Sources
1. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305488.php
2. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305488.php
3. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/injuries-and-poisoning/injury-to-the-urinary-tract-and-genitals/kidney-injuries
4. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/hematuria-blood-urine
5. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/kidney-(renal)-trauma/symptoms
6. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/genitourinary-tract-trauma/renal-trauma
7. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/injuries-and-poisoning/injury-to-the-urinary-tract-and-genitals/kidney-injuries
8. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/injuries-and-poisoning/injury-to-the-urinary-tract-and-genitals/kidney-injuries
9. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/440811-workup
10. http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/ct-scan/basics/definition/prc-20014610
11. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Angiography/Pages/How-is-it-performed.aspx
12. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/379085-overview
13. http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/injury-kidney-and-ureter
14. https://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/Article/116472EN
15. http://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd/kidney-friendly-diet-for-ckd.html